Wish List for Budget 2016-17

Revamping FRBM – Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act 2003 was meant to bring deficit under control. But it is now flawed because it allows no flexibility in fiscal deficit target. It should be revamped. Rationale behind the fiscal deficit trajectory should be stated (which can come from Debt to GDP ratio which is 66%) and should carry a flexibility to modify the fiscal deficit.

Adequate Expenditure – India’s govt. expenditure is 26.6% of GDP which is less than the average 31.7% of emerging nations of G-20. The need is not to cut expenditure to reduce CAD (Current account deficit) but to decide the expenditures and then raise the revenue accordingly. Approach should be changed.

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Angel Investor Basics

Who is an angel investor?

Angel investor is the one who can provide funds for the start ups to the entrepreneurs. She invests in the business which, in her opinion, can fetch her substantial amount of profits. At the same time, start ups are also very risky.

If the start ups are risky then why do they invest?

We need to first understand who are the angel investors. Angel investors, commonly, are themselves entrepreneurs and the motive of investing is also to get the knowledge and exposure of the industry in which that start up would work apart from monetary purpose. They expect 20-30 times returns on their investments in a short period, say 5 years, i.e. the annual return of 300-400% annual return (without discounting the cash flows). They make an exit strategy through IPOs or any other source to limit their risk.

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Analysis of Union Budget 2015-16


Comments/Analysis/Explanations are highlighted in blue

CPI Inflation 11.2% in Nov. 2012 5.1% Currently
Current Account Deficit (CAD) 4.6% GDP (1st quarter of 2013-14) 1.3% of GDP expected
Fiscal Deficit 4.5% of GDP in 2013-14 4.1% of GDP expected
Foreign Inflows 15 Billion USD in 2013-14 55 Billion USD in 2014-15
Wholesale Price Inflation Negative
GDP Growth Around 7.4% 2014-15 8.5% 2015-16 expected
Rupee status Depreciated Badly Appreciated becoming stronger by 6.4% against a basket of currencies


  1. CPI InflationThis inflation is the measure of price changes of a basket of goods and services e.g. food, transportation etc.
  2. CADIt is the excess of imports over exports of goods, services and transfers including capital account transfers. E.g. interest and dividends and asset transfers.
  3. Fiscal deficitFiscal deficit arises when government spends more than the revenue (taxes) it gets. A developing economy needs to maintain its fiscal deficit but should not eliminate it.
  4. Rupee DepreciationReasons of Rupee Depreciation

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Railway Budget 2015-16

Railway Budget 2015-16

  1. Reservation period – It is now possible to book tickets 120 days in advance as against 60 days.
  2. Concessional e-tickets – The same will be provided for differently-abled travelers.
  3. Multi-lingual e-ticketing portal – Government to work towards the same and implement it soon.
  4. Unreserved tickets – Don’t want to spend on reservation, yet don’t want to go to the ticket window? Soon you will be able to book ticket without paying for reservation. A pilot study has started.
  5. Vending machines – Debit card operated ticketing machine is proposed to be set up.
  6. No fare hikes – Good news, isn’t it? Not even one year has been elapsed since the increase in fares, so the same was not expected.
  7. Problems and Complaints – 24X7 helpline number, 138, and toll-free number 182 for security related complaints.
  8. Catering – Now some quality food is here. Best food chains will be integrated in the project. What more, choosing the meal will now be available. Meal can be booked online along with ticket booking. Water vending machines will also be increased.
  9. SMS Alert – Tired of reaching station only to know that the train is late by 2 hours? of finding internet connection to check the arrival/departure schedule? No more; now travelers would be intimated about the same in advance by SMS. Be sure to keep your phone battery charge, atleast.
  10. Charging ports – Forget to charge your gadgets before traveling? No problem; now charging ports would be available in general class coaches also and number of charging ports would be increased in sleeper coaches. What? Are you asking about chair car? Just travel in general class coach one time and invest that money in a portable power bank. Duh!
  11. Peaceful nights – Surveillance facility will be provided in selected mainline coaches and ladies’ compartments of suburban coaches without intruding into privacy.
  12. Entertainment – No need to get bored in Shatabdi train now. A project for introducing on-board entertainment on select Shatabdi trains on license fee basis has been launched.
  13. Free WiFi – As a part of “Digital India” initiative, WiFi will be provided at B category station too (A1 and A category stations are already covered). Just don’t keep sitting at the stations all the day!
  14. Wheel chairs – Wheel chairs can now be booked on payment basis by senior citizens. Finally some good initiative for senior citizens.
  15. Increase in train capacity – Capacity in identified trains to be augmented to run with 26 coaches; more General class coaches to be added in identified trains.
  16. Ladders – Last time when I traveled, a lady fell while climbing to reach upper birth. Many similar cases are there. NID has now approached to design user friendly ladders for climbing upper berths. Also, senior citizens can now avail their increased quota for lower births.
  17. Lifts and escalator – Provision of Rs. 120 crore for the development (76% higher than that of last year)
  18. Clean stations – Professional agencies will be engaged to clean the station.
  19. Waste to Energy – Waste to energy conversion plants will be set up near major terminals as a part of “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan”.
  20. Built-in dustbins – The same would be available in general coaches also.
  21. Increase in train speed – Speed of 9 railway corridors to be increased from existing 110 and 130 kmph to 160 and 200 kmph respectively so that inter-metro journeys like Delhi-Kolkata and Delhi-Mumbai can be completed overnight.
  22. Bullet train – Feasibility study for High Speed Rail between Mumbai-Ahmadabad is in advanced stage and report expected by the mid of this year.

For financial, governance, and other aspects Other Aspects of Railway Budget 2015-16

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