Author: Chiranjiv Kumar


Understanding Types of RBI Rates

There has been a lot of buzz in the news about cutting down the repo rates, bank rates, SLR, CRR etc. to control the money supply in the market. We already know that cutting down the rates would increase the money with the commercial banks which can lend the same to the investors who in turn boost the economy with their investments. Also there would be an increase in the private and public consumption. This process is called quantitative easing. Now the question is what are these ratios.  Read More »


What Union Budget of India 2015-16 should include

Finance minister Arun Jaitley will present Union budget of India for 2015-16 on 28th February. Now there are some points which should be included in it.

  1. Infrastructure Projects – There are nearly 5 lakh crores worth of infrastructure projects which are stalled. The reason being inflation, rise in prices of cement and other materials. Banks are not willing to give them loans due to the risk of possible default. The budget should present a plan under which it should give preference to some selected projects which can be completed. This would ensure that capital is not blocked.
  2. Retrospective Tax Laws – Tax system in India is very uncertain. On one side we are asking to “Make in India” and on the other side there is a confusion in the tax regime, particularly retrospective tax system. There should be stable tax laws to eliminate the fear of uncertainty among the potential investors. This would give FDI and FII a big boost.
  3. Labor Laws – Labor laws in India also need an overhauling. Stringent checks should be placed. Trade unions and companies should work together on specified set of rules to prevent conflicts.
  4. Goods and Services Tax (GST) – GST is the much-awaited taxation structure. The reason being simplified tax laws. It will eliminate cascading effect. Credits of excise duty which is included in cost can’t be taken by the trader against the VAT paid and other case where credit of CST is not available against VAT. This is a double taxation system which will be eliminated in GST regime. Main hurdles are being faced due opposition from state governments fearing loss of power and funds.
  5. Boost Public and Private Consumption – This can be encouraged by giving public more disposable income at hand which is possible by some tweaks in tax slabs i.e. increasing the exemption limit to Rs. 300,000. More consumption means more investment which in turn would boost the economy. Cutting repo rate by 25 basis points is the first step which is already taken by the RBI.
  6. Good Samaritan Law – As per wiki “Good Samaritan laws offer legal protection to people who give reasonable assistance to those who are injured, ill, in peril, or otherwise incapacitated. The protection is intended to reduce bystanders’ hesitation to assist, for fear of being sued or prosecuted for unintentional injury or wrongful death.” We really don’t need any reason not to consider this. Thousands of people are being killed in road accidents and bystanders are not willing to help them because of fear of exploitation by police along with other fears like monetary loss. A law should be made where expenses incurred by Samaritan should be reimbursed and she should not be given any trouble for her good deeds. Anyone, including the policemen, going against the rules or misbehaving with samaritans should be punished with fine or imprisonment or both.

Scrapping of Planning Commission

Modi announced in his speech that the planning commission will be scrapped and replaced by “Team India” which will undertake a deeper study of the India’s problems and offer solutions with the help of states. Though many of the Chief Ministers agree except a few, the question is whether it would be fruitful or not.

Planning Commission is an institution entrusted with the formulation of five-year plans. No decision is allowed to be taken by states, and there is a centralization of power. I never had a high opinion of the planning commission because of the reputation it made of itself. It formulates “one size fits all” policies and in a developing and democratic country like India; this is something that is unacceptable. Scrapping of Planning Commission would grant power to states because of decentralization of power, and respective states can plan and implement the same on their own. That would increase confidence and viability. Some politicians are in favor of restructuring the Planning Commission which, in fact, leads to an inference that they, acknowledges the poor working of the same and want to restructure it. Why only now? It has been more than 60 years since the enactment of the commission and only when there arise a fear of loss of power; there are opinions to restructure it.

In my opinion, “ maximum governance, minimum government” would rightly fit here and in the coming time, it will increase the effectiveness and simplicity of the administration yielding maximum benefits to the nation.


Mars Orbiter Mission

Mission type Mars orbiter
Operator ISRO
COSPAR ID 2013-060A
SATCAT № 39370
Mission duration 6 months (planned)[1]
Spacecraft properties
Bus I-1K[2]
Manufacturer ISAC
Launch mass 1,337 kg (2,948 lb)[3]
Dry mass 500 kg (1,100 lb)
Payload mass 15 kg (33 lb)[4]
Dimensions 1.5-metre (4 ft 11 in) cube
Power 840 watts[2]
Start of mission
Launch date 5 November 2013, 09:08 UTC[5]
Rocket PSLV-XL C25[6]
Launch site Satish Dhawan FLP
Contractor ISRO
Orbital parameters
Reference system Areocentric
Periareon 421.7 km (262.0 mi)[7]
Apoareon 76,993.6 km (47,841.6 mi)[7]
Inclination 150.0° [7]
Period 72 hours 51 minutes 51 seconds[7]
Epoch Planned
Mars orbiter
Orbital insertion 24 September 2014, 02:00 UTC
MSD 50027 06:27 AMT[8]
  • Project Director – M Annadurai
  • ISRO Chairman – K.Radhakrishnan
  • 4th agency to reach Mars after Soviet Space Program, NASA and ESA


Challenges Faced

  1. Distance – Target was moving at a rapid pace around the sun and adding to that was unknown of venturing into the space.
  2. Communication – Owing to huge distance (upto 400 million kms), a communication system with low, medium and high gain antenna and other ground antennae was put in place to handle communication which took between 6 to 43 minutes for 2-way communication.
  3. Power – Demand of strong solar panels by the spacecraft. A solar panel was put in place to generate 840W of power in Martian orbit with 36 AH lithium ion attached onboard for power storage.
  4. Protection – Designing the spacecraft to avoid all the the thermal and radiation environments on en route to Mars.


Payloads onboard Spacecraft

  1. Mars Color Camera (MCC) – To capture images and composition of Mars, monitoring dynamic events and weather etc.
  2. Methane Sensors – To map the sources of methane in Martian environment.
  3. Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP) – To study the escape process of upper atmosphere as well as water from Mars.
  4. Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer – To map surface composition and mineralogy of Mars based on thermal emissions.
  5. Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyzer (MENCA) – To analyze the neutral composition.
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